Affirmative Action began as a targeted response to racial discrimination, typically deliberate discrimination. It has morphed into a larger, broader response to generalized societal discrimination. While noble in intent, this shift has had many negative consequences, but has also failed to equalize racial disparity.

When California voted to end affirmative action at state universities, black enrollment fell by half. Supporters of affirmative action interpreted this as evidence as the need for the programs continuation; I view it as evidence of the programs failure. AA also has created grievances by whites of reverse discrimination. While I believe this viewpoint is unjustified, the fact is it exists  and is widely held by whites, retarding the cause of better racial integration and racial harmony

Color blind criteria focusing on socioeconomic status also boosts minority enrollment, but may also help lower class whites who are equally disadvantaged by social elitism, especially at Ivy League and other prestigious universities, without the racial backlash.